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Hematology
Hematology is engaged in the blood cells and organs / tissues that produce them, blood clotting, production of cells, their functions and diseases. Blood cells include red blood cells (erythrocytes), white blood cells (leukocytes), and platelets.
The treatment of hematological problems:
  • Anemia is the most common problem. The disease is defined with abnormally low hemoglobin. Anemia can be expressed in many forms, such as weakness and tendency to faint. Anemia occurs for many reasons, for example iron deficiency or sometimes as a consequence of some very rare congenital problems such as diseases of the bone marrow. Diagnosis: the conversation with the patient and patient's family, medical examination with a focus on signs of jaundice, increased liver and spleen. Laboratory tests: a careful study of the blood cells with a focus on the indicators of the red blood cells, a smear of blood, genetic analyses, hemolysis, sometimes an ultrasound examination or analysis of bone marrow is needed.
  • Spherocytosis is a disease in which there is a defect in the membrane of the red blood cells. Symptoms of diseases: anemia, jaundice, enlargement of the spleen and increased tendency to gallstone disease. In case, if there is a suspicion of spherocytosis, a smear of blood is taken in search of suspicious looking cells. In addition, the analyses of "osmotic fragility» is necessary - a special laboratory test, which examines the «force» of cell membranes and tendency to the early destruction. Treatment - folic acid. Folic acid is essential to the bone marrow of the patient to generate more blood cells, which attempts to compensate for the destruction of the blood. Blood transfusion - in cases of severe anemia. Splenectomy - resection of the spleen, since it is responsible for the process of decomposition of blood. In the past, it was carried out for all patients, but now we understand the importance of preserving the spleen and operate only in the most severe cases.
  • Thalassemia is a genetic disease, which is associated with a defect in one of protein chains that are included in the structure of hemoglobin. Minor thalassemia - thalassemia which has no effect. Major thalassemia (Beta) - the complete condition of the thalassemia which causes serious disease with complications. There is a constant need for blood transfusions and in some cases can be offered bone marrow transplantation.
  • Neutropenia is a disease characterized by an abnormally low number of neutrophils. (cells that responsible for the destruction of alien organisms and bacteria). Symptoms: tendency to high temperatures and frequent infectious diseases. There are numerous causes of neutropenia that can roughly be divided between either problems in the production of the cells by the bone marrow and destruction of the cells elsewhere in the body. Accordingly, there can be different types of treatment.
  • Thrombocytopenia - platelets are cells of the blood, responsible for the creation of a blood clot. When the platelet count is low, tendency to bleeding may occur mainly on the skin and mucous membranes. Thrombocytopenia may be caused by the problems in the production of the cells by the bone marrow or by increased destruction of the cells.
  • Hypercoagulation - increased coagulation of blood. It can be temporary or permanent, mainly on hereditary reasons. There are several therapeutic decisions: the treatment of the underlying factors. Some vitamins can correct the metabolic problems. Search of genetic causes of clotting. Medicamental methods of the blood dilution.
  • Leukemia (blood cancer) is the most common malignant disease in childhood. In most cases, the bone marrow is replaced by the cancer cells, which causes a lack of blood, and as a consequence of it - weakness, pallor and propensity to excessive temperature, skin and mucous membranes infections. Diagnosis is usually given after the analysis of the bone marrow. The treatment is based on chemotherapy. It begins with intensive treatment and the subsequent maintenance therapy afterwards. In special cases radiation therapy and bone marrow transplantation is used. In recent years doctors achieve valuable success in the treatment of leukemia.
Israel has a very solid Bank of bone marrow donors. Once a year at least a nationwide day of collection of samples is conducted, which allows to extend the Bank donors even more.
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